IPI International Potash Institute
IPI International Potash Institute

研究报告: e-ifc No. 42, September 2015

芥末种植园。照片提供:IPI.

杂卤石做肥料对油料作物芥末和芝麻产量及品质的影响

Tiwari, D.D.(1), S.B. Pandey(1), and N.K. Katiyar(1)
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摘要

(1) C.S. Azad 农业和技术大学土壤和农化系, Kanpur 208002, India
通讯作者: ddtiwari2014@gmail.com

在印度,芥末(Brassica juncea)和芝麻(Sesamum indicum L.)是重要的油料作物。这两种作物都是喜硫作物。Polysulphate™主要成分是天然矿物质“杂卤石”,它由四个关键的植物营养元素硫(S)、钾(K)、镁(Mg)和钙(Ca)组成。本文主要是通过2组不同的试验研究基施Polysulphate对芥末和芝麻作物的影响。每组试验包括6个施肥方案:T1为施用推荐量的氮(N)和磷(P)肥(不施钾肥),T2为施用推荐量的氮磷钾(NPK)肥,作为对照,T3-T5为施用推荐剂量的氮磷肥(NP)+ Polysulphate 20、30和40 kg ha-1,再分别对应补偿钾的水平到推荐量,而T6为施用推荐量的氮磷钾肥(NPK)+ 石膏(施用量以硫的量计算,与T5处理硫的量相同)。与对照相比,不施钾肥会使芥末和芝麻籽粒产量分别减少12%和17%。对这两种作物而言,通过基施Polysulphate,发现作物产量的增加与硫的施用量呈线性关系。当硫的施用量为40 kg ha-1时,与对照相比,产量增加了33%。硫的施用使整个植物生物量明显增加,影响大多数的收益参数,包括含油量。因此,芥末和芝麻的出油率增加到1095、505 kg ha-1,与对照相比,分别增加了39%和43%。硫的施用明显增强了作物对钾素的吸收,表明这两个元素之间的存在协同关系。此外,硫和钾转移到谷物中,可能参与了油脂的生物合成。因此得出结论,像施用大量元素那样大量施用硫肥可显著增加芥末和芝麻等油料作物的产量。讨论了Polysulphate作为基肥优于石膏。

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