IPI International Potash Institute
IPI International Potash Institute

Scientific abstracts

Optimization of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Fertilization Rates for Overseeded Perennial Ryegrass Turf on Dormant Bermudagrass in a Transitional Climate
Ihtisham, M., S. Fahad, T. Luo, R.M. Larkin, S. Yin, and L. Chen.
Published in:
Front. Plant Sci. 2018, English


Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] turf loss due to severe cold in transitional climates is a major concern. To overcome this problem, warm-season grass is often overseeded with a cool-season turfgrass. In this study, modeling and efficient nutrient management were used to evaluate this problem. A three-factor and five-level central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with a simulation of a regression model was used to optimize fertilization rates. The study investigated the combined effects of fertilization with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) on both the morphological and physiological attributes and on the integrated turf performance (ITP) of overseeded perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Fertilization with N and P significantly increased turf height, density, color, fresh and dry weights, while N, P, and K significantly affected turf cover, quality and winter-kill. The Spring transition was delayed by fertilization with N and P, and accelerated by fertilization with K. Photosynthesis (Pn), transpiration (Tr), and stomatal conductance (Gs) were considerably enhanced by fertilization with N, P, and K. Protein levels and total chlorophyll levels were substantially increased by fertilization with N and P and with N, P, and K, respectively, during a 2-year period. During two separate experiments conducted during 2 consecutive years, the optimal combinations of N, P, and K were N: 30, P: 24, K: 9, and N: 30, P: 27, K: 6 g m−2. The major conclusion of this study is that a balanced nutrient application utilizing N, P, and K is key to enhancing the winter performance of perennial ryegrass.

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